BTEC National Level 3, HNC and HND (Y201 onwards) - Engineering Science - UNIT03

General Engineering Mechanical Science, also known as Science for Engineers / or Technicians
Covers the following unit codes;
C&G 402/428/429/430/514/518 / MCA LvI&II / DR3L 34 / DR1T 34 / DT9T 34 / DT9P 34 / DT9X 34 / 2287U / A/101/1007 / K/101/1035 / 21722P / 21793P (9503M) / 21718P (9499M) / Y/101/9311 / 20915V / D/101/9357 / 2287U / F/600/0254 / L/601/1404

Mandatory Sections include;

0- Pre-requisites and Units

1.1-1.2- Static Systems

1.3-1.4- Dynamic Systems

2- Electrial and Electronic Principles

3- See optional section

4.1-4.2- Engineering Systems- Information, Energy and Control

Optional sections (a min. of 3 topics from the following to be incorporated into the course of study; 3.1 & 3.2, or 3.1 & 3.3 are mandatory);

3.1- Heat Transfer

3.2- Thermodynamics

3.3- Fluid Dynamics

3.4.1- Colour and Cameras (Macrophotography [fl<x10^-6])

3.4.2- Microscopy (Microphotography [fl>x10^-6])

3.4.3- Aerodynamics

Pre-requisites for this unit:
English- essay writing ability and speech, literacy, correct use of punctuation, verbs and adjectives, presentation skills, practical demonstrations, verbal reasoning, use of the telephone, library reference system, Harvard referencing system, organisational skills, self discipline and attendance, communication
Mathematics; geometry, algebra and trigonometry, core skills- application of number (see below).

Skills You Should Have for Engineering Science:

Below is the list of the skills you should be confident with before starting the FE Engineering Science course:

Mathematics skills;
basic mensuration (units and measuring)
geometry
basic algebra (non-calculator), inc. transposition
simplifying algebraic expressions
laws of indices
expanding and factorising expressions (one term outside)
laws of indices for all rational exponents (positive, negative, fractions)
quadratic functions (non-calculator)
plotting graphs of quadratic functions
expanding and factorising quadratics (two brackets)
solving quadratic equations by factorising
solving quadratic equations using the formula
equations and inequalities (non-calculator)
solving simultaneous linear equations by elimination
solving simultaneous linear equations by substitution
solving linear inequalities
trigonometric functions (SOHCAHTOA)
sine rule (SIN)
cosine rule (COS)
use of tangent function (TAN)
using the sine rule to find missing sides and angles (SOH: Oranges Have Segments)
using the cosine rule to find missing sides and angles (CAH: Apples Have Cores)
using the tangent rule to find missing sides and angles (TOA: O.A.T. ... think Quaker Oats!)
using sine rule, cosine rule, trig ratios and pythagoras in problems

Science skills:
knowledge of practical physics
law of gravity
mass, acceleration/gravity and force relationship
periodic table
metals and non-metals
ferrous and non-ferrous
common gases
common liquids
specific gravities (S.G.) of common fluids (liquids and gases)
solids inc. metallic structures; simple, body or face centered cubic
chemical symbols and elements
chemical compounds
atomic structure- atom and electron cell structure/order
element groups
reactivity series
basic chemistry
basic electromagnetic spectrum, inc. the visable colour spectrum of light
conduction (electricity)
ohms law (V= I x R)
concept of magnetism
basic human anthropometrics
experimentation: methods and techniques

BTEC Level 3

HNC/HND

Grading

Higher National Engineering by Mike Tooley and Lloyd Dingle provides full coverage of the following core units of the Edexcel Foundation's new Higher National Certificate and Higher National Diploma schemes for Engineering.

Web-links; The sites listed in the table below will provide you with additional resources and support material:

Unit Code / Year
Section / Sub-Sec.

Learning Outcome

U21718P2008-h1-3-0.0.HSE

U21718P2008-h1-3-0.1

U21718P2008-h1-3-0.2

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Technician Introduction and Syllabus Contents (inc. Health and Safety) This unit includes, but is not limited to;
units, statics, kinematics, dynamics, friction, machines, applied mechanics, strength of materials, fluids at rest, transverse stability, heat energy, gas laws, combustion, refrigeration, nature of electricity, electric currents, electric circuits, resistance, primary and secondary cells, magnetic fields, electromagnetic induction, measuring instruments and measurements, information systems, and control processes.
A student is expected, where a topic is only covered in part in class, to self study a minimum of 1-2 hours per unit, per week, on the remaining sub-topic areas (contained herein) to ensure full coverage of the units expectations, engineering council minimum specification requirements at level 3-5 and engineering institutions guidance on minimum subject requirements for EngTech level.
Students are reminded, in line with UKSPEC, to uphold the following four fundamental Ethical principles;
1. Honesty and integrity;
2. Respect for life, law, the environment and public good;
3. Accuracy and rigour;
4. Leadership and communication.
In addition, I add the following;
Question everything;
Don't always assume everything is 'correct';
Apply safe working practices- have a "Safety First" mindset;
Measure twice, Cut once!
Innovate, Conceptualize, Design, Develop, and Create;
Learn empathy and perseverance;
Avoid corrosive personalities- these people never "learn" or "change" (i've met a few in my time!).
Initiate Change- be an active change promotor/agent.
"We must learn by our mistakes, not make new ones";
Be prepared to argue somthing if YOU believe that it is the safe way and not the old way or those with the"we have always done it that way" attitude.
Prevention always overrules corrective action if it can be avoided in the first place (or prevent an accident).
Have a CAN DO approach.
Work as a Team, and help each other, within your peer group/ department at work- remember we have to get along with everyone.
... and above all;
Five Mantras; (1) Equality, (2) Opportunity, (3) Wisdom, (4) Freedom and (5) Love.

Health and Safety Law: The main principles of health and safety law in Great Britain are that:
1) Employers have to look after the health, safety and welfare of all their employees
2) Employees and the self employed have to look after their own health and safety;
3) Everyone has to take care of the health and safety of others, for example members of the public who may be affected by their work.
These principles are set out in the Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974 (the HSW Act).

U21718P2008-h1-3-0.3

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International System of Units and Units of Measure

International system of units, Imperial conversion, useful scientific data, and sources of reference material for the Engineer

Simply Metric (1973), BFI film;



Basic system of SI units; SI-units- basic group, derived group, prefixes, nomenclature, symbols and units, know fundamental and derived metric units, states the fundamental units of length, mass and time in S.I., dimensional analysis M-L-T units of measurement, states the values of the prefixes: pico, nano, micro, milli, centi, kilo, mega, giga and tera, defines density and its units, defines relative density, imperial relations and conversion between imperial and SI units and vice-versa, standard form, mass, weight, gravity (Newton's law of gravitation), state that the formula F = ma is a mathematical representation of Newton's Law that force is proportional to the rate of change of momentum, use the formula F = ma to define the Newton as the unit of force, forces applied to a static object- state that the weight is the effect of gravity on a mass, and that the weight of one kilogram mass is approximately 9.81 N, state that gravitational force exists and leads to free fall acceleration, state that the average acceleration due to gravity is approximately 9.81 m/s2, define intensity of pressure as force per unit area, state that the fundamental derived unit of pressure is the Newton per square meter and is called the Pascal, state that there is pressure due to the atmosphere, define the bar as 10^5 pascals (10^5 N/m2), state absolute pressure equals gauge pressure plus atmospheric pressure, common formulae, examples and problems

Newton's laws- Newton described force as the ability to cause a mass to accelerate. His three laws can be summarized as follows:
• First law: If there is no net force on an object, then its velocity is constant. The object is either at rest (if its velocity is equal to zero), or it moves with constant speed in a single direction.
• Second law: The rate of change of linear momentum P of an object is equal to the net force Fnet, i.e., dP/dt = Fnet.
• Third law: When a first body exerts a force F1 on a second body, the second body simultaneously exerts a force F2 = -F1 on the first body. This means that F1 and F2 are equal in magnitude and opposite in direction.


General physics- heat, light, sound, periodic table of the elements (reference), galvanic series (noble and least noble), basic chemistry, mechanical drawing and sketching, theoretical and applied mechanics- solve problems involving mass, force, acceleration, area and pressure
.

Students at Technician level should experience basic chemistry and laboratory testing in order to gain knowledge on the planning, set-up, experimentation, analysis and verification aspects of Engineering. Tests should include basic weight determination (weight in air, weight in water), seperation of liquids and solids, material contents of mixtures, filtering and evaporation, cleaning and etching, tensile and impact testing.

Computer Sciences, Communication, Drawings; Traditional, CAD, CAM, types of CAD, types of drawings, reading drawings, 3rd and 1st Angle, Projections, 2D, 3D, Isometric, information on drawings, symbols, standards, conventions, quality, Information and Technology (IT), software and hardware, CPU, processor, hard drive/backing store, CAD formats and their use, CAD-CAM, Analysis, FEA, CFD, MBS, problem solving IT, security.

Students within the Science module shall produce at least 1 Engineering drawing or diagram, either as classwork or part of an assessed unit. The drawing or diagram shall be formal and presented accordining to general scientific and/or Engineering convention(s). Reference in the study or assignment shall quote the tools and techniques of the computer science elements required within Engineering.

U21718P2008-h1-3-1.1 1.1 Static Engineering Systems- Bending
U21718P2008-h1-3-1.1.01

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Static Systems and Vectors Static force systems; definition of a force, acceleration due to gravity, vectors and scalars, defines stable, unstable and neutral equilibrium, defines the moment of a force about a point, states the principle of moments, define a scalar quantity, define a vector quantity, state that a force is a vector quantity, resolve a force into horizontal and vertical components, deduces that V = F SinQ and H = F CosQ values of Q (theta) being restricted to the first quadrant, adding vectors graphically and analytically, resolution of forces using sin and cos vector derivation, state that three co-planar forces in equilibrium must meet at a point or act parallel to each other, triangle of forces, Bow's notation, deduce the resultant of two forces meeting at a point, state that the components of the resultant are the separate sums of the components of the two forces, states the theorem of the parallelogram of forces, solve simple problems involving two forces meeting at a point, define static equilibrium, solve graphically and analytically a static force system that involves no more than 3 coplanar forces, technique to solve a static force system that involves more than 3 coplanar forces (higher level), wind force, navigation and compass work, two and three dimensional pin jointed frames, solve problems associated with the turning effect of a force

Convention in the UK is that we read left to right, thus force-moment analysis is done in the similar fashion;
• x-dir, L to R; +'ive
• y-dir, Bottom to top; +'ive
• Moments; -'ive anti-clockwise, opposing gravity 'down' from a hanger fixed to the 'left-wall', +'ive clockwise
This is a generalised convention, however acceptance is made if the signs and directions correspond with the system analysis conducted in an alterative way i.e. depicted graphically on a sketch, drawing or free body diagram.


Statics- Statics is the branch of mechanics that is concerned with the analysis of loads (force and torque, or "moment") acting on physical systems that do not experience an acceleration (a=0), but rather, are in static equilibrium with their environment. When in static equilibrium, the acceleration of the system is zero and the system is either at rest, or its centre of mass moves at constant velocity. Newton's second law
F = m a
Where bold font indicates a vector that has magnitude and direction. F is the total of the forces acting on the system, m is the mass of the system and a is the acceleration of the system. The summation of forces will give the direction and the magnitude of the acceleration will be inversely proportional to the mass.

The summation of forces, one of which might be unknown, allows that unknown to be found. Likewise the application of the assumption of zero acceleration to the summation of moments acting on the system.
M = I a = 0
Here, M is the summation of all moments acting on the system, I is the moment of inertia of the mass and a = 0 the angular acceleration of the system.

The summation of moments, one of which might be unknown, allows that unknown to be found. These two equations together, can be applied to solve for as many as two loads (forces and moments) acting on the system.

From Newton's first law, this implies that the net force and net torque on every part of the system is zero. The net forces equalling zero is known as the first condition for equilibrium, and the net torque equalling zero is known as the second condition for equilibrium, and is Statically determinate. A system is said to be Statically indeterminate when the static equilibrium equations (force and moment equilibrium conditions) are insufficient for determining the internal forces and reactions on that structure.

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Basic Statics, Mass, Density and Volume Force- From Newton, force can be defined as an exertion or pressure which can cause an object to accelerate. The concept of force is used to describe an influence which causes a free body (object) to accelerate. It can be a push or a pull, which causes an object to change direction, have new velocity, or to deform temporarily or permanently. Generally speaking, force causes an object's state of motion to change.

Solve simple problems relating to mass, volume and density of solids, states that a litre is 1 X 10^-3 m3

U21718P2008-h1-3-1.1.03

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Shear Force and Bending Moment Diagrams Simply supported beams; free body diagrams, concentrated point loads, lines of action, plot shear force and bending moment diagrams

Research Machines (self-study task);
Machine- defines a machine as a device for changing the magnitude and line of action of a force, define force ratio (Mechanical Advantage), define a movement ratio (Velocity Ratio), determine efficiency in terms of MA and VR, derive the Linear Law applicable to a machine E = aW + c, explain why the machine efficiency cannot reach 100%, describe with the aid of sketches the construction of: (a) the differential wheel and axle; (b) the Weston differential pulley block; (c) the screwjack; (d) the crabwinch; (e) the worm and worm wheel; (f) rope-pulley block system, determine the Velocity Ratio for the machines, solves problems related to simple lifting machines (e.g. cranes, lifts, derricks)

U21718P2008-h1-3-1.1.04

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Uniformly Distributed Loads (UDL's) and Unity Factor Method Uniformly distributed loads (UDL's), conditions for static equilibrium, combinations of both concentrated point loads and UDL's and comparison for higher or lower order loading levels (i.e. bridges for vehicle transport- use at busy times compared to times when unloaded on the bridge deck), solve simple problems on levers, shafts, cantilevers and simply supported beams involving concentrated or uniformly distributed loads

Unity factor method- for the conversion of units, metric and imperial, use of imperial and metric units for a variety of engineering problems, conversion of metric to imperial and vice-versa

U21718P2008-h1-3-1.1.05

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Bending Moments and Centroids Moments and turning forces; definition of moments and turning forces, fulcrum and axis of rotation, moment, couple and turning effects, moment about a point, sum of moments, define centroid of a lamina and centre of area, balance points and centre of gravity (C of G), sketch the position of the centroid of a symmetrical lamina such as a rectangle, define centroid of a mass and refers to the centre of gravity of a mass, centroids of plane figures- square/rectangle, circle, triangle, break down complex shapes into simple shapes, find centroids by taking moments, wind loads acting on simple structures (i.e. flag pole)
U21718P2008-h1-3-1.2 1.2 Static Engineering Systems- Torsion
U21718P2008-h1-3-1.2.01

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Torsion and Eulers Column Theory Bending; Engineers theory of bending, stress distribution, middle third rule, determine distribution of shear force, bending moment, and stress due to bending, and radius of curvature, in simply supported beams subjected to concentrated and uniformly distributed loads, beams and columns, elastic section modulus 'z' for beams, standard tables for rolled beams, standard sections (and types), selection of standard sections, columns, Eulers theory, Slenderness ratio, Eccentric loading of columns

Torsion; define shear stress, define shear strain, define ultimate shear strength, determine distribution of shear stress and angular deflection due to torsion in circular shafts, shear strain, shear modulus, theory of torsion and its assumptions, distribution of shear stress and angle of twist in solid and hollow circular section shafts, engineers theory of torsion equation, defines torque, define work done in terms of torque and angle turned, draw graphs of force/distance and torque/angle turned and relate the area under the graph to work done

U21718P2008-h1-3-1.2.02

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Stress, Strain and Pressure Vessels Stress and Strain; define stress, defines stress as the load carried by unit area, solve simple problems involving direct stress, define strain, define strain as change in dimension per unit original dimension, calculate simple problems involving direct strain, describe various types of stress and strain, solve simple problems involving force, area and pressure, strength of materials- recognise tensile, compressive and shear forces, determine experimentally stress and strain for given elastic materials, define elasticity and plasticity, understand laboratory techniques for determining the stress and strain relationships of elastic and inelastic (brittle) materials, metallurgy and testing of materials, define Young's Modulus (YM), calculate YM, state Hooke's Law, Tensile stress, Compressive Stress, Shear Stress, Spring Stiffness, helical springs, sketch a complete load/extension diagram for a low carbon steel, draw graphs of force/extension and stress/strain for an elastic material, plotting stress strain curves for two or more engineering materials, describe the form of stress/strain graphs for brittle and ductile materials, understand a materials Ultimate Tensile Stress (UTS) point, calculate the proof stress, YM, UTS from a plotted curve, define the terms; ductility, brittleness, hardness, limit of proportionality, elastic limit, yield stress, define Factor of Safety (FoS) and how it relates to the UTS, Ultimate Compression Stress (UCS) and working stress, resolve stress engineering problems to determine the safe limits of operation, and their FoS, solve simple problems involving shear, description of fatigue stress and periods of oscillation over the life of the item under stress by use of a Goodman-Haigh diagram
U21718P2008-h1-3-1.3 1.3 Dynamic Engineering Systems- Uniform Acceleration
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Distance, Velocity and Acceleration Kinematics- solve problems involving distance, time, velocity and acceleration, defines speed, calculate average speed from given time and distance data, solve engineering problems that involve the combination of linear motion, angular motion and friction, definitions of distance, velocity and acceleration (differentiation and integration relationship between the three derivations, and how to get velocity (m/s) from acceleration (m/s^2), or distance (m) from velocity (m/s)), velocity-time graphs, equations of motion, momentum and inertia, define momentum as the product of mass and velocity, mass moment of inertia, conservation of momentum and impact, radius of gyration, select and justify the use of energy methods to solve motion problems

Uniform acceleration; determine behaviour of dynamic mechanical systems in which linear and/or angular acceleration is present, state the difference between speed and velocity and between distance and displacement, plot straight line distance time graphs, calculate the gradient of such graphs and interprets the slope as speed, define acceleration, plot straight line velocity time graphs, calculate the gradient of such graphs and interprets the slope as acceleration, solve problems using the equation distance = average speed x time, calculates distance from the area under velocity/time graph

Dynamics (mechanics)- Dynamics is a branch of applied mathematics (specifically classical mechanics) concerned with the study of forces and torques and their effect on motion, as opposed to kinematics, which studies the motion of objects without reference to its causes. Isaac Newton defined the fundamental physical laws which govern dynamics in physics, especially his second law of motion. (Note, I have not used the word 'Dynamic' for the subject title of this sub-section, as this part relates to Kinematics, with its own definition)

U21718P2008-h1-3-1.3.02

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Newtons Laws, Second Moment of Area and SHM Dynamic forces; Newton's Laws and Energy; solve angular motion problems using Newton's laws of motion, solve linear problems using conservation of energy, solve linear motion problems using Newton's laws, mass moment of inertia and radius of gyration of rotating components, combined linear and angular motion, Beaufort force and wind speed, gears, balancing of rotating masses

Mechanical oscillations; determine behaviour of oscillating mechanical systems in which simple harmonic motion (SHM) is present, linear and transverse systems, qualitative description of the effects of forcing and damping

In principle, researchers involved in dynamics study how a physical system might develop or alter over time and study the causes of those changes. In addition, Newton established the fundamental physical laws which govern dynamics in physics. By studying his system of mechanics, dynamics can be understood. In particular, dynamics is mostly related to Newton's second law of motion. However, all three laws of motion are taken into account because these are interrelated in any given observation or experiment.

U21718P2008-h1-3-1.3.03

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Energy, Springs and Work Work and Energy; define work done in terms of force and distance moved, define the joule, molecular theory of matter and its definition, structure of matter- atoms and molecules, states of matter- solid, liquid and gas, and their boundary transitions of state, latent heat, changes of state, latent and specific heat, describes fuels as sources of energy, state that heat being a form of energy, the unit for quantity of heat is the joule, distinguishes between temperature and heat energy, definition of temperature and temperature scales, defines the fixed points on the Celsius scale of temperature, describes temperature measuring devices: (a) a liquid in glass thermometer; (b) thermocouple; and (c) pyrometer, definition and characteristic of heat, definitions of work done, energy, D'Alembert's principle (virtual work), describe energy as a capacity to do work, conservation of energy, states the law of conservation of energy, give examples of energy conservation devices, work done against friction, different types of energy, mechanical energy- potential (PE), kinetic (KE) and rotational (RE), problem using energy methods, strain energy, work-energy transfer systems with combined linear and angular motion, effects of impact loading
U21718P2008-h1-3-1.3.04

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Mass and Energy, Power and Friction Energy balances; Mass and energy, mass balance, energy balance, linear and angular kinetic energy, combined linear and angular motion, power, effects of friction

Power and friction; definition of power, state that power is the rate of doing work or the rate of transfer of energy, state that the Watt is the unit of power, power transmitted by torque, define a friction force, laws of dry friction, distinguishes between "static" and "dynamic" friction, coefficient of static friction, derive the Coefficient of Friction between interacting surfaces, angle of friction, horizontal planes, graphical and analytical methods, friction on inclined planes, resolution of forces, equilibrium, point of sliding, increasing angle of plane, describe the effect of lubricating two surfaces in contact, solve problems involving work, energy and power, define efficiency in terms of energy input and output

U21718P2008-h1-3-1.4 1.4 Dynamic Engineering Systems- Mechanical Oscillations
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Angular Motion; Velocity and Acceleration, Centripetal and Centrifugal Force Angular motions, definition of radians, angular distance, angular velocity, angular acceleration, angular momentum, convert revolutions and/or parts of a revolution to radians and vice versa, convert a given angular velocity in rev/min to rad/s and vice versa, correlations between equations of linear and angular motions, further use of Newton's laws of motion (1st, 2nd and 3rd laws), centripetal and centrifugal force
U21718P2008-h1-3-1.4.02

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Velocity Diagrams, Efficiency, Engines and Banking Graphical velocity diagrams, efficiency ratio, solves simple problems involving distance, time, linear velocity, angle turned, uniform linear acceleration, using appropriate diagrams and/or analytical methods, dynamics of reciprocating engines, centrifugal governors, dynamic banking
U21718P2008-h1-3-2.1 2.1 Electrical and Electronic Principles- DC, Single Phase
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Electrical Principles, DC circuits; Units, voltage, current, series and parallel circuits Voltage and current; state that all conductors offer some resistance to the flow of electric current, ohms law for a one voltage source and resistive load, and combinations of parallel and series and resistive loads, states Ohm's Law (R = V/I) in terms of the proportionality of current to potential difference and that the unit of resistance is the ohm, solve simple problems using Ohm's Law, states that Power in watts equals volts multiplied by amperes (P = V I), state that power dissipated in a given conductor is the product of a potential difference and the current, use Ohm's Law to show that P = I^2R or V^2/R, calculates the power dissipated in simple circuits

Direct current circuits; solve DC circuits involving one voltage source and parallel/series combinations of resistive load components, no more than 3 resistive loads min., identify the three main effects of an electric current, solve problems involving resistance variation with temperature and resistivity, state the effect of temperature increase on the resistance of metals, carbon, electrolytes and insulation, defines the temperature coefficient of resistance R = Rr[1 + a(T - Tr)], solves simple problems involving the temperature coefficient of resistance, definition of resistance is proportional to resistivity and length, and inversely proportional to cross sectional area (R = ? l / A), defines resistivity and solve simple problems involving resistivity

Series circuits
describe a series circuit as one which provides only one path for the flow of current through the circuit, state that the current is the same in all parts of a series circuit, state that the sum of the voltages in an external series circuit is equal to the total applied voltage, shows that for resistors connected in series the equivalent resistance is given by R = R1 + R2 + R3… solves simple problems involving up to three resistors connected in series including the use of Ohm's Law

Parallel circuits
describes a parallel circuit as one which provides alternative paths for the flow of current through the circuit, state that the sum of the current in resistors connected in parallel is equal to the current flowing into the parallel network, state that the potential difference (voltage) is the same across resistors in parallel, shows that for resistors connected in parallel the equivalent resistance is given by 1/R = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + 1/R3.. solves simple problems involving up to three resistors connected in parallel by use of Ohm's Law

U21718P2008-h1-3-2.1.02

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Further Electrical Principles; DC circuits; Electrical conductivity, Resistance and Resistors Electrical and Electronic principles; describe the structure of the atom and defines electron, proton and neutron, describe the shells of electrons in the atom and the detachment of a loosely held electron by some influence, states that the free movement of electrons gives a current of electricity, states that, for unidirectional continuous current free electrons must be available in all parts of a circuit, states that the SI unit for current is the ampere, state that one ampere is one coulomb per second, that a coulomb is the unit for quantity of electricity and that a coulomb is composed of a specific and very large number of electrons, defines the terms "conductor" and "insulator" and give a minimum of three examples of each, basic electrical engineering, potential difference, explain how a current flows due to the existence of a potential difference between two points in an electrical conductor, define potential difference and states that the unit is the volt, EMF- defines electromotive force (EMF / e.m.f.) and states that the unit is the volt, aware of the concepts of e.m.f. and internal resistance, describes the potential difference (voltage) of a source on no load as the e.m.f., defines internal resistance, explain the effect of load current on terminal p.d. and hence determines internal resistance
U21718P2008-h1-3-2.1.03

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Kirchhoffs Laws, Cells, Batteries, Capacitance, Capacitors, Measurement and meters Kirchoff's (current 1st and 2nd) laws, voltage and current dividers, cells, batteries, battery types and cells, name secondary cells and generators as sources of electricity, explain difference between primary and secondary cells, describes the chemical changes during the charging and discharging of a simple lead-cell, describes how, using a high resistance voltmeter, the e.m.f. of charged lead-acid cells is measured: (a) singly; (b) in series; and (c) in parallel, explain the effects of load current on terminal p.d. and hence determines internal resistance of cells, label, given a diagram, the mains parts of: (a) lead-acid cells; and (b) alkaline cells, states that the capacity of a cell is measured in ampere hours, use preferred symbols appropriate for the representation of sources, cells and resistors, and switches when drawing an electric circuit diagram, motor and generator principles, fundamental relationships- resistance, inductance and capacitance, discharge curves of capacitors, ignition system- spark plug discharge, ignition system circuit, ignition harness, wiring circuits- wiring systems, fault and fault finding techniques, solves problems associated with simple electrical circuits

Measuring instruments and measurements- describe with the aid of given diagrams the principles of operation of: (a) moving iron; and (b) moving coil instruments, explain the needs for shunts and multipliers to extend the range of a basic electrical indicating instrument

U21718P2008-h1-3-2.2 2.2 Electrical and Electronic Principles- AC Theory
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Single Phase Alternating Current (AC) and Inductance Establish the difference between DC and AC circuits, Single Phase Alternating Current (AC) Theory,
Non-resonant circuits; solve problems on non-resonant circuits and resonance circuits supplied by a constant sinusoidal voltage, equivalent impedance and admittance for circuits containing R-L-C, when connected in series and parallel, current flow, potential difference, characteristic impedance for power transmission, power factor, true, reactive and apparent power for these circuits, use of Argand diagrams to display the solutions to problems

Resonant circuits; definition of circuit resonance, circuit conditions at resonance for circuits containing a coil and capacitor connected either in series or parallel, resonant frequency, Q-factor and dynamic impedance for these circuits

Power factor correction; power factor, true and apparent power, describe the methods used for power factor correction and its benefits, capacitance required to improve the overall power factor of an inductive load, benefits of this technique to the supply authorities
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3 phase A.C. power supply Three Phase Alternating Current (AC) Supply Theory, UK power transmission network and pylons, 3-phase ring circuit in the home

The notes above contain information on the following topic areas;
Power in Resistive and Reactive AC circuits.
Active, Reactive and Apparent Power.
The Significance of Power Factor.
Power Factor Correction.
Complex power.
Single Phase Power Systems.
Three Phase Power Systems.
Three Phase "Y" and "D" Configurations.
Power in three-phase systems.
Generation of three-phase voltages.

  • Book: Kempes Engineering Yearbook (Vols 1 and 2)
  • Book: Erik Oberg and Franklin D. Jones, Machinery's Handbook (latest edition)
U21718P2008-h1-3-2.3 2.3 Electromagnetic Waves, Transformers, Power, Semiconductors, Motors, Logic and Waveguides
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Electromagnetic Waves and Waveforms Complex waveforms; describe the nature of complex waveforms and synthesise a complex waveform graphically, describe/explanation of how electrical and electronic devices produce/are produced from complex waveforms/sinusoidal waveforms, graphical synthesis of a complex waveform, recognition of waveforms containing odd-order harmonics only and even-order harmonics only (including the effects of phase shift), production of harmonics due to non-linear characteristics in electrical and electronic devices, advantages and disadvantages of selective resonance in a system, describe the effects of complex waveforms on electrical and electronic systems
U21718P2008-h1-3-2.3.02

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Power and Transformers Transformers; high and low frequency, transformation ratio, current transformation, unloaded transformer, input impedance, maximum power transfer and transformer losses, solve transformer winding problems to provide the correct voltage output required to power the electrical circuit, diode bridge rectifier and use of smoothing and regulation devices, state examples of an electric current being used for; (1) its magnetic effect, (2) its chemical effect and (3) its heating effect, identify the effect being made use of in given specific cases- examples electromagnet, electroplating, electric fire, and fuses
U21718P2008-h1-3-2.3.03

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Semiconductors Further electronics, electromagnetics and electrical power; Semiconductor devices, diodes, zener diodes, varactor diode, rectifiers, voltage regulation, radio waves, rf circuits and waves, frequency modulation, light emitting diodes (LED), bipolar transistor, NPN and PNP, thyristor diode, UK mains plugs, printed circuit boards (PCB), PCB manufacture, semiconductor principles, operational amplifiers, inverting and non-inverting amplifiers, cascades and rectifier circuits

The notes above contain information on the following topic areas;
1. Semiconductor Theory
1.1 Atomic Structure.
1.2 Energy Bands.
1.3 Covalent Bonding.
1.4 Conduction Process.
1.5 Doping Process.
1.6 N-Type Semiconductor.
1.7 P-Type Semiconductor.

The notes above contain information on the following topic areas;
2. The PN Junction
2.1 Construction.
2.2 Current Flow in the N-Type Material.
2.3 Current Flow in the P-Type Material.
3. The Junction Barrier
3.1 Forward Bias.
3.2 Reverse Bias.
3.3 The Diode.

U21718P2008-h1-3-2.3.04

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AC and DC Motors Small electric motors, AC and DC motors and types, commutator, induction (AC) type, stators, armature construction, squirrel cage, synchronous motors, motor working principles, torque and load angle
U21718P2008-h1-3-2.3.05

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Logic and Waveguides Other Electrical systems- Logic control and waveguides; Switching circuits, logic, truth tables, logic circuits, duality, combinational and sequential logic, bistable devices, multiple bistable devices, logic symbols (BS and ANSI), waveguides, types, forms, formula for wavelength, attenuation, waveguide systems, waveguide standards, waveguide example in relay feed units for satellite communication transmission (Goonhilly, Cornwall)
U21718P2008-h1-3-2.4 2.4 Magnetism and Acoustics
U21718P2008-h1-3-2.4.01

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Magnetism and Electromagnetic Induction Magnetism; magnetic fields, magnetic effects of a current, electromagnets, electro-magnetic induction, defines the terms flux, flux density, m.m.f. (magnetic motive force), and magnetizing force, transformers, Lenz's law, Faraday's Law, Generators and electric motors, galvanometers, recognise the effects of ferromagnetic materials on flux density, state the units of B, H, m.m.f.

Magnetism and Electromagnetic Induction; state Lenz's Law, state Faraday's Laws of electromagnetic induction, Fleming's right hand rule, explain the motor principle in terms of the interaction between two magnetic fields, explain the function of the commutator, recognise from the formula F = BIL, the linear relationship between F and the other terms, explain the generator principle in terms of Faraday's Laws and Lenz's Law, recognise the linear relationship between E and the other terms from the formulae E - BLv, Fleming's left hand rule, describes production of an induced e.m.f. due to a change in magnetic field, motor principles, transformer principles

U21718P2008-h1-3-2.4.01

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Acoustics Acoustic units, sound pressure, loudness, microphones, sound waves, velocity, frequency and wavelength, reflection and diffraction, standing waves, human ear receptive response, sound quality, transients, decibel, broadcasting sound, audio practice (BBC Television and Radio)
  • Powerpoint
  • Extended Notes
  • Book: Olson, H. F., Elements of Acoustical Engineering, D.Van Nostrand Co., New York, 1940
U21718P2008-h1-3-3.1 3.1 Heat Transfer
U21718P2008-h1-3-3.1.01

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Energy Transfer in thermal and fluid systems Modes of heat transfer, fluids and thermodynamics; define conduction, convection and radiation- describe the modes, characteristics of gases, gas laws, - ideal gas (P/T =C), Charles Law (V/T = C), Boyle's Law (P a 1/V), general gas equation (pV/T = C), solve problems involving gas laws, derive absolute zero temperature and relays Kelvin scale to the Celsius scale of temperature and visa-versa, specific gas constant R and its units, states the meaning of standard temperature pressure (STP) and normal temperature pressure (NTP), heat energy transfer problems involving mass, specific heat capacity and temperature change, and expansion, state that temperature differential decides the direction of transfer of heat energy, defines a change in enthalpy without change of state (ie sensible heat), specific heat at constant volume (Cv) and constant pressure (Cp), defines specific heat capacity, state that a unit of specific heat capacity is the kJ/kg K, application of characteristic gas equation (pV = mRT), solve problems involving pressure, volume, temperature and mass

For Motorsport students;
Internal combustion engines; defines the following engine power; (a) indicated power; (b) brake power; (c) friction power; (d) cooling water power; and (e) exhaust power, determine mean effective pressure from an indicator card, derive formula for indicated power in relation to single acting engines operating on two and four stroke cycles, define indicated and brake mean effective pressures, defines specific fuel consumption (s.f.c), defines the following engine efficiencies: (a) mechanical efficiency; (b) indicated thermal efficiency; and (c) brake thermal efficiency, solves problems involving two stroke and four stroke IC engines

U21718P2008-h1-3-3.1.02

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Energy and Heat Transfer Transfer of heat energy, discuss expansion and contraction of solids and liquids and the practical application of thermal expansion and contraction, distinguish between real and apparent expansion of a liquid, solves problems relating change of temperature and change of dimensions of solids and liquids, define specific heat capacity without reference to constant volume (Cv) or constant pressure (Cp), solve problems involving heat and cooling of solids and liquids relating heat energy and temperature, describe how changes of state occur without change in temperature, define boiling and freezing points (i.e. mercury, water, refrigerant), defines specific enthalpy of fusion and specific enthalpy of evaporation, solves problems involving mixtures of solids and liquids, liquids and liquids, liquids and vapours

Basic laws of thermodynamics (1st law) and fluids and their application to complex engineering problems that require a multi-disciplinary analytical approach for their solution (this leads into the Thermo-Fluids module)

U21718P2008-h1-3-3.1.03

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Conduction, Convection and Radiation Heat transfer rates; determine heat transfer rates in thermal systems, thermal conductivity, natural and forced convection coefficients, Stephan's constant, black and grey body radiation, conduction through insulated surfaces, discuss the use of insulation to conserve fuel in a heating installation, appreciate the effects of heat energy supplied to solids, liquids and gases
U21718P2008-h1-3-3.1.04

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Heat and Temperature; Specific and Latent Heat Heat and temperature, temperature measurement, thermometers, thermocouples, heat energy transfer, specific heat, specific heat for constant volume, specific heat for constant pressure, characteristic gas equation, latent heat, temperature-energy diagrams
U21718P2008-h1-3-3.2 3.2 Thermodynamics
U21718P2008-h1-3-3.2.01

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Thermodynamic basics Basic thermodynamics: expansion and compression of gases, isothermal expansion or compression, adiabatic expansion or compression, polytropic expansion or compression, work done in an expansion or compression non-flow process, heat flow during an expansion or compression of gase in a closed system, specific heats of gas, ratio of specific heats, thermodynamic process formulae, flow processes, steady flow energy equation (SFEE), enthalpy, entropy

For Aerospace, Motorsport and Heat and Ventilation (HV) students;
Further thermodynamics and fluids; absolute and gauge pressures, standard atmosphere, Avogadro's hypothesis, polytropic expansion, closed thermodynamic system energy equation, open thermodynamic system energy equation, liquid and soil fuels, gaseous fuels and the calorimeter, process and definition of combustion, defines a fuel and the types of fuels available for combustion, combustion and heat (pressure) engines, give the chemical symbols of the elements and compounds associated with combustion, gives meanings of suffix and prefix numbers applied to chemical symbols, develop combustion equations for hydrogen, carbon, sulphur, define higher and lower calorific values of a fuel, determine combustion analysis by mass, determine theoretical or stoichiometric air requirements for complete combustion of a fuel by mass, defines excess air supply, discuss the effect of excess and inadequate air supply in relation to boilers and internal combustion engines

U21718P2008-h1-3-3.2.02

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Thermo Steam Tables Properties of steam, thermodynamic tables, properties and the use of steam, steam tables, phase transition of water into wet steam and by further temperature (energy- enthalphy) increase to superheated steam, wet steam and dryness fraction, enthalphy-entropy diagrams, pressure-enthalphy diagrams, volume of steam, internal energy of steam, pV (pressure-volume) diagram for water-steam substance, expansion of steam- non-flow process, thermal and mechanical efficiency, power rating, refrigeration

For Heat and Ventilation (HV) students;
Refrigeration; state the properties of a refrigerant (e.g. refrigerant 134a), describe the basic refrigerant circuit for a compression type domestic refrigeration plant (i.e. a household fridge), state the condition of the refrigerant at the various points in the circuit, health and safety precautions when working with refrigerants, future HFC refrigerants, reduction in pollutant refrigerants damaging to the environment, Ozone and CFCs

U21718P2008-h1-3-3.2.03

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Expansion of liquids and solids Expansion of liquids and solids; linear expansion of solids, define coefficient of linear expansion (dL = a l dt), surface area expansion of solids (dA = 2a A dt), volumetric expansion of solids (dV = 3a V dt), derive coefficients of superficial and cubical expansions, equations of expansion (+L, A or V) and contraction (-L, A or V), derive the relationship between temperature and the increase of linear dimensions of solids and volumetric dimensions of liquids,
  • Powerpoint
  • Extended Notes
  • Book: Lewitt, E. H., Thermodynamics applied to Heat Engines, 3rd Edition, Engineering Degree Series, Pitman, 1943
  • Book: Robinson, W., Dickson, J. M., Applied Thermodynamics, 2nd Edition, Engineering Degree Series, Pitman, 1947
U21718P2008-h1-3-3.3 3.3 Fluid Dynamics
U21718P2008-h1-3-3.3.01

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Basic fluid dynamics Hydrostatics and thermodynamics, principle of density, specific weight, relative density, floating and immersed bodies, Buoyancy, Archimedes's principle, state the Principle of Archimedes and applies this principle to the equilibrium of floating bodies of simple geometrical form, solve simple problems involving pressure and thrust due to liquid depth with liquid on one side only, determine the thrust exerted on horizontally and vertically immersed surface
U21718P2008-h1-3-3.3.02

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Hydrostatics Hydrostatics; hydrostatic pressure, pressure at depth, understand that the pressure at a point in a liquid is equal to pgh and is independent of area, hydrostatic thrust on an immersed plane surface, pressure measuring devices (u-tube manometer, pizometer, barometer/tiefenmesser), construction and workings of instruments, centre of pressure of a rectangular retaining surface (i.e. dam) with one edge in the free surface of a liquid, example of pressure over an aircraft fuselage in flight, where the pressure force is acting onto the structure by the less dense surrounding air, example of pressure over a pressure vessel hull (i.e. submarine) where the pressure force is acting onto the hull by the surrounding fluid (sea water), pressure equalisation effects- balance, implosion or explosion, crush depth of a submarine, ship transverse stability (box shape only)- understand the term "centre of gravity", "centre of buoyancy" and metacentre as applied to a box shaped vessel, state that it is usual to measure the vertical position of the centre of gravity of the ship above the keel and this is denoted by KG, states that the height of the centre of gravity of an item on the ship above the keel is denoted by Kg, solve simple problems involving addition of mass to the ship, solve simple problems involving transverse movement of masses across the deck using the given formula GM=mxd/ztan(Q), ship stability problems, construction of machinery, propellers etc., construction and workings of ships and other marine vessels, longitudinal stability of ships (higher level)
U21718P2008-h1-3-3.3.03

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Pipe flow Fluid flow in pipes; fluids in motion, continuity equation, energy of a fluid, steady flow energy equation (SFEE), Bernoulli's equation, flow regime- laminar flow, transition and turbulent flow, flow measurement- venturi and orifice meters, pitot-static tubes, forces exerted by a jet of fluid, pipe bends and other reductions (k-factors), Hydraulics- force transmission, valve diagrams
U21718P2008-h1-3-3.3.04

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Viscosity Viscosity, describe the effects of viscosity in fluid flow systems, boundary layer formation, laminar and turbulent flow, viscous drag, pressure loss in pipes, effect of temperature on viscosity, non-Newtonian fluids- shear thickening (rheopectic) and thixotropic (thinning) fluids, bingham, pseudoplastic, casson and dilatent fluid rheograms, surface tension and capillary action

Energy losses; calculate energy losses due to viscosity in fluid flow motions, dynamic viscosity, power loss in plain journal and thrust bearings, pipe friction coefficient, pressure loss in pipes using Darcy's formula
U21718P2008-h1-3-3.4 3.4 Optional units
U21718P2008-h1-3-3.4.1.01

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3.4.1- Colour and Cameras (Macrophotography [fl<x10^-6]) Colour and Cameras; colour spectrum and wavelength, colour mixing, colour measurement, understand the fundamental principles of photography, rule of thirds, composition, lumens, lux, colour temperature, colour management, color gamut, chromaticity coordinates and diagram, lighting, traditional wet film processing and digital, digital workflow and processing, preparing technical images for incorporation into technical publications, reports, essays or articles.
  • Powerpoint
  • Extended Notes
  • John Hedgecoe, J., The New Manual of Photography, Dorling Kindersley LTD, 2003, ISBN 9780751337372
  • Freeman, M., The Photographer's Studio Manual, Watson-Guptill Publications Inc., 1991, ISBN‎ 0817454640
  • The Kodak Library of Creative Photography, 18 Volumes, Kodak, Time-Life, 1985
U21718P2008-h1-3-3.4.2.01

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3.4.2- Microscopy (Microphotography [fl>x10^-6]) Use of the microscope, parts of the microscope, lens and objective, sample preparation, mounting of specimens, performing visual inspection, recording microscope images, scale and proportion (measure), digital workflow and processing, preparing technical images for incorporation into technical publications, reports, essays or articles.
U21718P2008-h1-3-3.4.3.01

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3.4.3- Aerodynamics For Aerospace and Motorsport students;
Flow over aerofoil surfaces; aerofoil definition, aeroplanes in steady flight (aeronautics), viscosity and streamlines, scaling, skin friction and eddy formation, spinning, stability, flutter, performance of aeroplanes, airscrews, forces and stresses in aeroplanes, speed of air moving over an aircraft wing in flight, comparison of the pressure difference on the upper and lower surfaces of the aerofoil to generate lift (pressure decrease on upper surface, pressure decrease on lower surface, and concept of low pressure moving to the higher pressure area), NACA standard aerofoils (types and shape), characteristic drag factor, description of mach number against a given high speed engineering application, pressure wave generated at M= 1, M >1 mach, sonic boom generated at mach 1, effects of the sonic boom to the environment and disturbances it may cause, convergent-divergent nozzle, resistance of ships, flying boat hulls
U21718P2008-h1-3-4.1-4.2 4.1-4.2 Information and energy control systems
U21718P2008-h1-3-4.1.01

U21718P2008-h1-3-4.2.01

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Information, Energy and Control Systems Information systems; produce, read and interpret block diagrams of closed-loop control systems, systems and sub systems, system boundaries and subsystem inputs and outputs, block diagram representation of a typical information system, eg audio-communication, instrumentation, process monitoring; qualitative description of how electrical signals convey system information; in depth analysis of a system (to include, where applicable, transducers as energy converters, types of transducer, transducer output and accuracy), types of amplifier, fluid amplifier, typical gain, resolution of analogue to digital and digital to analogue converters, actuation devices, types of oscillators and operating frequencies; effect of noise on a system; determination of a system output for a given input, describe in qualitative terms the operation, signal transmission and signal conditioning of closed-loop proportional feedback control systems, signal processing

Energy flow control systems; block diagram representation of an energy flow control system (eg AC electric drives, DC electric drives, heating, lighting, air conditioning); in-depth analysis of a control system (to include, where applicable, the transistor as a switch, thyristor, temperature-sensing devices, humidity sensing devices, speed control elements for DC and AC machines, dimmer devices and relays); describe the methods by which electrical signals convey information, determination of system output for a given input, analyse an information system, describe the methods by which electrical signals control energy flow, analyse an energy flow control system

Commercial and legal knowledge; health and safety, documents, chartering, insurance etc., technical organisation and administration, quality assurance and quality control, ISO9001, repair and maintenance in engineering practice, cost estimation principles and technique

Key2 websites- Mike Tooley's Links to the my key2 websites are available below:
http://www.key2study.com/
http://www.key2control.com/
http://www.key2electronics.com/
http://www.key2engineeringscience.com/
http://www.key2engtech.com/
http://www.key2btec.com/
http://www.key2study.com/btecnat/index.html

If at first you don't succeed,
Try, try, try again.

- proverb by William Edward Hickson, ref. Oxford Dictionary of Quotations (3rd edition). Oxford University Press. 1979. p. 251.

Note: if you find any errors with any of the notes or contents on this page, suspect the information contained within a resource, description is inaccurate or significantly out of date, then please email me at; petero@oshproductionstudios.com

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